Tag: English is a Circle

Effort and Rest

You and I, we speak English. And, if you came to English teaching as a native speaker, you might make a mistake that I made: it seems easy, right?

Get that it isn’t easy

Sure, you know that people are paying you to teach them, so it’s obviously not something that’s super easy, but it’s important to understand that it’s not just ‘not easy,’ it’s ‘hard.’ If you are teaching ‘abroad’ (whatever that means for you), then try learning the local language. Learning English is at least that difficult.

More sports metaphors

I’m not an athlete, but I use a lot of sports metaphors in thinking about learning language, mainly because they seem to fit better than comparisons with learning chemistry, for example. Language isn’t something you know, it’s something you do.

Imagine you want to get in shape. You’re so dedicated to getting in shape, that you join a gym and sign up for a weekly class. The trainer comes in and gives you a five-pound weight. “Do three curls with that,” she says. You do the curls.

“Great. Now here#s a seven-pound weight. Do three curls with that.” I could probably do the curls with both weights, but if the weight is going to be increased by two pounds with each set of exercises I do, I’ll soon be either 1) unable to do the reps or 2) injured.

Neither of those really brings me closer to my goal.

Why doesn’t it look hard?

When you think about it with weights, it’s easy to realize that you’ll soon hit a point where you need to back off and build up some strength first. But why does English seem different?

I think it’s because most of the effort is going on between students’ ears, where we can’t see it. Still, that doesn’t mean it’s not happening.

Students who have just mastered “what is your name?” and “my name is…” have lifted their first weight, ever. You need to respect that that’s an accomplishment, and even though they only know one thing, they have to practice it until they can handle it.

And, when they come in the next week, they might be starting from scratch again, because it’s seriously hard, even if you think “this seems simple.”

The risk of overdoing it

Nobody will get hurt. And, to the best of my knowledge, you can’t “sprain a brain.” So, why worry?

The short answer is this: because you’ll lose students. Either they’ll think they can’t learn with you (this is the best case scenario because then someone else will at least be making money off of them) or they’ll think they’re too old, too stupid, or just not ‘language types’ and they’ll give up on English altogether.

What is effort?

The same way that Usain Bolt and I have different perceptions of what is hard, each student will find different things strenuous. This is an area where my idea of English as a circle is helpful for how I think.

As a general rule, the closer you are to the edge of the students’ own circle of English, the more tiring it is for them. And, when the circle is practically just a dot of “my name is…” then everything students do in English is ‘close to the edge.’

So, how do you manage effort?

If you workout — we’re back to the sports metaphors again — a typical workout is structured along the lines of super hard work followed by a rest period. The trick is to not get too much hard work, and not get stuck forever in the ‘resting phase.’

(A whole extra topic is the fact that language is different from exercise because you can enjoy being fit every day. You really only enjoy your foreign language abilities when you travel, so taking time off from ‘training’ to just let students revel in their ‘language fitness’ is recommended.)

When you’re leading a lesson, try to alternate between working hard and taking a break. This can happen both within an activity (allow yourself to be ‘sidetracked’ in order to facilitate a break before returning to pushing them to learn) or it can be between activities (things like the recurring activities are a great way to break up two more difficult activities).

What does rest look like?

That’s a good question, because, to the native speaker it all basically looks like speaking. What is rest?

When you’re teaching a beginners course, rest can be returning to their native language. I start the lesson in English — even the first one — and use my first ‘rest break’ to introduce myself in German. Other topics for a little chat in German are my tips on how to learn, motivation, things that are different between English and German, and, of course, praise. (“I know it’s hard, but think about how much more you said this morning than you could say six weeks ago… I think you all deserve a pat on the back, and your teacher deserves a whiskey.” — That always gets a laugh.)

Even before you’ve reached the end of A1, you can start ‘resting’ in English. After all, if you’re running intervals, you don’t stand still after one interval, you just return to jogging.

Some things you can do are to return to ‘conversation drills‘ that you’ve already mastered together. It’s almost a relief to go from “What do you do in your job?” to “Do you have kids? Where does your son live?”

Another strategy — especially within a grammar activity — is to be ‘distracted’ by the content of the activity. If you’re pushing hard to practice the structure “Berlin is bigger than Dresden” you can suddenly be doubtful. “How big is Berlin? How many people live there? Dresden has a zoo. Is there a zoo in Berlin?” It’s all vocabulary to review, and it lets the students rest their brains before you return to “Is Potsdam bigger than Dresden?”

How do your students rest in class?

Do you think my fitness metaphors are spot on, or simply absurd? How do you manage the level of effort you are demanding from your students? This is a relatively new idea for me, and I’d love to hear your ideas.

English is a Circle

Obviously, English isn’t a circle. But, thinking about it as one has made me a bit of a better teacher, I think.

The premise

I guess you can imagine that there is a circle that accurately represents all the things you need to learn to ‘master English’ (whatever that means). In the center, you might see ‘simple present’ and, clustered around it, ‘simple past’ and ‘present progressive.’ I don’t know. I don’t exactly know what the circle looks like, yet.

english-is-a-circle
A rough idea…

Your idea of how the circle is organized might be different (and more accurate!) than mine. The point is: it’s a circle and we start in the center.

I view it as an abstract thing that I build together with my students (they don’t know we’re building it, it’s more a thing that helps me think about how to best help them). We start in the center of the circle and, like an Army conquering territory, we push the front outwards and try to solidify our gains. And, of course, sometimes I do a less spectacular job and we inadvertently abandon hard-won territory.

(I genuinely didn’t mean for this to become so militaristic.)

How it works in practice

That’s the important question, right? How do I apply this to my teaching?

I guess my last view of English was as a checklist: master this, move on to that. Now, I see it as a circle that we have to expand… and which is always trying to contract. So, instead of thinking “we learned this grammar, let’s focus on the next vocabulary unit,” I think “okay, we just pushed the border of the circle a bit in this direction. What can we do to solidify our gains? How can I reinforce this while reinforcing something else, or learning something new?”

Even more, it’s important to understand that all of this connects to effort. Assuming the students (and the poor teacher, don’t forget him!) have a limited amount of energy, we want to spend that energy wisely. So, there are some things to know:

  1. In the beginning, just formin the circle is work. That is because everywhere in the circle is very near to the edge when it is so small, which connects to the next point:
  2. The closer you get to the edge of the circle the more effort you need per unit of time. This is true for time spent in my German circle (yes, German is a circle, too!) I can converse in German all day, but ask me to read or write — things much closer to my own limits — and I get tired quickly.
  3. The circle will contract if you abandon it. Maybe thinking of it as a bubble in your brain is better: if you don’t work to keep the bubble inflated, all the other bubbles will expand and push it back together.
  4. The circle expands and contracts unevenly. Mathematically speaking, it’s probably never a perfect circle. You push in one direction and cover some ground. While you’re working on it, entropy nibbles at the ground you’ve covered before.
  5. You have to respect the energy level of your students. Not just that they might be tired, but also that they might need to invest energy into other things. This is something you can talk about with them. (“Our progress here will depend on many factors. One of them is the amount of energy you have available for your English learning…”)

What a lesson looks like

More than ‘conquering territory,’ I tend to think of each lesson as a workout. When I’m structuring a lesson, I have a few goals:

  1. Let’s all get into the circle. Not just the students, but also me. I have to re-acquaint myself with these students’ current skill level. (Think of this as the light stretching before the workout.)
  2. Let’s take a few laps of the territory that is solidly within the circle, having a conversation (or other activity) that covers the things we know. (Think of this as the warm-up that gets your heart going.)
  3. Once we’re warmed up, let’s make our first push in some direction. It’s easiest, if we can deliberately use what we’ve learned already to support this. But, let’s not burn out too easily. (Think of these as individual ‘sets’ ina workout. One set isn’t enough for real growth, and you don’t want to overdo it on any one set.)
  4. After we’ve put in a solid effort, let’s back off and recoup a little. This can be taking a moment to laugh about something that happened, another review activity, checking the homework, or the teacher being willing to relax his “let’s focus people!” approach and allowing the conversation to wander. (Think of this as the break between sets.)
  5. Let’s make another push in the direction that we want to move. After we’ve caught our breath, let’s do it again. I feel like an amazing teacher if I can make three different pushes in the same direction in a lesson. The students might see it as a single block of ‘grammar,’ but I know that it was a properly structured workout.

In the greater scheme of things

For a long time, I’ve felt confident about my ability to put together well-constructed lessons. However, the lessons I’ve made didn’t always string together into much more than blocks of three or four lessons.

However, this circle metaphor — combined with the workout idea — has helped. First, because I have an idea of what territory we’ve covered (and need to defend) and what territory we want to cover (most students don’t need — or, probably, want — to speak English the way that I do).

It’s not new to me that students need review. Where I think that this has helped has been in understanding the students’ own energy levels and how hard you can expect them to work. (After all, it’s not tiring for me to focus on simple past!)

Have I re-invented the wheel?

Writing this, I’m mostly afraid that someone is going to say “These are the things that you would have learned in serious teacher training. How can you just now be learning this?” Or, perhaps worse, “this is an outdated way of thinking about the language learning process.”

I don’t know.

What do you think? Is this something that every teacher knows and I’m just playing catch-up? Or, is this way of thinking as helpful for you as it is for me?